WASHINGTON - The faces of more than 120 million people are in searchable photo databases that state officials assembled to prevent driver's-license fraud but that increasingly are used by police to identify suspects, accomplices and even innocent bystanders in a wide range of criminal investigations.
The facial databases have grown rapidly in recent years and generally operate with few legal safeguards beyond the requirement that searches are conducted for "law enforcement purposes."
Arizona is one of 13 states that lack facial-recognition systems.
Amid rising concern about the National Security Agency's high-tech surveillance aimed at foreigners, it is these state-level facial-recognition programs that more typically involve American citizens.
The most widely used systems were honed on the battlefields of Afghanistan and Iraq as soldiers sought to identify insurgents. The increasingly widespread deployment of the technology in the United States has helped police find murderers, bank robbers and drug dealers, many of whom leave behind images on surveillance videos or social-media sites that can be compared against official photo databases.
But law enforcement use of such facial searches is blurring the traditional boundaries between criminal and noncriminal databases, putting images of people never arrested in what amount to perpetual digital lineups. The most advanced systems allow police to run searches from laptop computers in their patrol cars and offer access to the FBI and other federal authorities.
Such open access has caused a backlash in some of the few states where there has been a public debate. As the databases grow larger and increasingly connected across jurisdictional boundaries, critics warn that authorities are developing what amounts to a national identification system - based on the distinct geography of each human face.
"Where is government going to go with that years from now?" said Louisiana state Rep. Brett Geymann, a conservative Republican who has fought the creation of such systems there. "Here your driver's license essentially becomes a national ID card."
Facial-recognition technology is part of a new generation of biometric tools that once were the stuff of science fiction but are increasingly used by authorities around the nation and the world. Though not yet as reliable as fingerprints, these technologies can help determine identity through individual variations in irises, skin textures, vein patterns, palm prints and a person's gait while walking.
The Supreme Court's approval this month of DNA collection during arrests coincides with rising use of that technology as well, with suspects in some cases submitting to tests that put their genetic details in official databases, even if they are never convicted of a crime.
Facial-recognition systems are more pervasive and can be deployed remotely, without subjects knowing that their faces have been captured. Today's driver's-license databases, which also include millions of images of people who get non-driver ID cards to open bank accounts or board airplanes, typically were made available for police searches with little public notice.
Thirty-seven states now use facial-recognition technology in their driver's-license registries, a Washington Post review found. At least 26 of those allow state, local or federal law enforcement agencies to search - or request searches - of photo databases in an attempt to learn the identities of people considered relevant to investigations.
"This is a tool to benefit law enforcement, not to violate your privacy rights," said Scott McCallum, head of the facial-recognition unit in Pinellas County, Fla.
According to Timothy Tait, assistant communications director for the Arizona Department of Transportation:
• ADOT received an $800,000 federal grant to assist with the exploration of a facial recognition system. This summer the agency will solicit for vendors to provide a possible software and hardware system that would focus on credential issuance and security. The timeline and full cost for such a system has not been determined.
• ADOT has long recognized the issue of fraud and identity theft, and put the Motor Vehicle Division on a proactive path to ensure that the identity of residents and credentials are secure.
• In July 2011, document imaging was implemented, which allows MVD offices to store and review credential source documents.
• In March 2012, the Photo First system was implemented. It requires that applicants for credentials have their photograph taken at the start of the customer-service process in MVD offices.